Wednesday, 31 December 2014

Murderous duel of Cavendish servants

About the year 1570, Henry Cavendish (1550-1616), the eldest son of Bess of Hardwick (1527-1608), wrote to his mother and stepfather George Talbot (1528-90) concerning an incident which had occurred between two members of his household. 
Henry Cavendish had married in 1568 to Grace Talbot (b.1560), the daughter of his stepfather George Talbot, and as the heir to his father William Cavendish who died when Henry was only seven years old, at this time Henry had his own household and was residing at Tutbury Castle.

The incident that took place, was a duel between two of Henry Cavendish's servants which resulted in the death of one at the hand of the other. It appears that the two servants involved had been with the family for a long time, as Henry had a strong affection for them as well as Bess herself knowing their characters well. The two servants were named Swenerton and Langeford; it was Swenerton who won the duel and killed Langeford. There was a family called Swynnerton from the town of the same name in Staffordshire, and a Langford family in Derbyshire. Therefore it would seem that they were locals to the area surrounding Tutbury Castle who went to work there.

Henry Cavendish wrote a letter to his mother Bess of Hardwick the day after the duel had happened between his servants. Bess then forwarded the letter to her husband George Talbot, with the instruction that it be returned to her. The fact that Henry waited an entire day before writing to his mother about the matter, which could have caused a scandal against the family, is surprising. As Swenerton, despite being pursued, was not yet caught and had indeed been permitted to flee in the first place, along with the blatant affection that Henry Cavendish felt for him, it is entirely possible that Henry Cavendish was perhaps trying to help Swenerton to escape the law, or at least delay it.

To my Lady.
To my lorde of some affecte
to my Lady
Maye yt please your Honor, I thought yt good to let your Ladyship vnderstande of a mysfortune that happened in my howse. On thursday at nyght last at supper ij of my men fell owt abowte some tryflynge woordes and to all theyr felloes iudgementes that harde theyr iangelynge, wear made good ffrendes agayne, and went and Laye togeether that nyghte, for they had byn bedfelloes of longe before, and loved one thother very well as every boddye tooke yt in the howse. On ffryday mornynge very early, by breake of daye they wente forthe, by name Swenerton, and Langeford with ij swordes a peece, as the sequele after showed, and in the fyeldes foughte together, and in fyghte, Swenerton shlewe Langeford, to my great greyfe booth for the sodeyne deathe of the one, and for the vtter dystructyon of the tother whom I loved very well. Good Madam let yt not trowble you in any thynge, we are mortall, and borne to many and strange adventures, and thearfore must temper owr myndes to bear shuche burthens as shall be by God layd on owr shoulders. My greattest greyffe, and so I iudge yt wyll be some trowble to your Ladyship that yt shoulde happen in my howse alas madam what coulde I dooe with yt, altogether not once suspectynge any thynge betwyxte them. I haue byn ryghte sorofull full for yt, and yt hath trowbled and vexed me, more then in reason yt should haue donne a wyese man. I would to God I could forget that theyr never had byn any shuch matter. Vpon the facte donne I sent for Master Adderley, and vsed hys counsell in all thynges. Swenerton ffledde presently, and ys pursued but not yet harde of. Thus humbly cravynge your Ladyship's dayly blessynge I end, more then sadde to trowble your Ladyship thus longe with thys sorrofull matter. Tutbury thys present Saturday.
Your Ladyship's most bounden humble and obedyent sonne:
Henry Cavendyshe.

retarne thys

my Iuwell thys saterday at nyght I resauyed thys later meche to my greffe for the myshape yett was euer lyke that swenertone shulde comete some great fayte he was a vane lewe felow. fare well my deare harth your faythefoull wyffe


Saturday, 27 December 2014

So bring us ye olde figgy pudding

We Wish You A Merry Christmas
We wish you a merry Christmas,
We wish you a merry Christmas,
We wish you a merry Christmas,
And a happy New Year
Good tidings we bring to you and your kin.
We wish you a merry Christmas and a happy New Year.

Now bring us some figgy pudding,
Now bring us some figgy pudding,
Now bring us some figgy pudding,
And bring some out here.
Good tidings ...

For we all like figgy pudding,
For we all like figgy pudding,
For we all like figgy pudding,
So bring some out here.
Good tidings ...

And we won't go until we got some,
And we won't go until we got some,
And we won't go until we got some,
So bring some out here.

A 'figgy pudding' is now known simply as 'Christmas pudding'. The description of the pudding as 'figgy' refers to its appearance as being like the inside of a fig, meaning filled with dried fruit.
Recipe for 'Figgy Pudding' from Liber Cure Cocorum which was written c.1420.

For stondand fygnade.

Fyrst play þy water with hony and salt,
Grynde blanchyd almondes I wot þou schalle;
Þurghe a streynour þou shalt hom streyne,
With þe same water þat is so clene.
In sum of þe water stepe þou schalle
Whyte brede crustes to alye hit with alle;
Þenne take figgus and grynde hom wele,
Put hom in pot so have þou cele;
Þen take brede, with mylke hit streyne
Of almondes þat be white and clene;
Cast in þo fyggus þat ar igrynde
With powder of peper þat is þo kynde,
And powder of canel; in grete lordys house
With sugur or hony þou may hit dowce;
Þen take almondes cloven in twen,
Þat fryid ar with oyle, and set with wyn
Þy disshe, and florysshe hit þou myt
With powder of gynger þat is so bryt,
And serve hit forthe as I spake thenne
And set hit in sale before gode menne.

Wednesday, 17 December 2014

Acne through the ages

Every teenager feels like they are the first person in history to get spots and acne, and that it is the end of the world. A multitude of cosmetic companies play on the insecurities of teenagers with spots to sell hundreds of products every year which claim to eradicate spots from their lives. 
This is not a modern phenomenon. For centuries young people have experienced spots on their faces and will try any treatment available to help them.

In the 16th century not only did people have the average amount of spots, but they also had scars from smallpox and plague outbreaks. Also, the make-up that was being worn at the time contained lead powder, which was terrible for the skin and often caused it to turn grey after extended use of the make-up. Queen Elizabeth I herself wore this lead based make-up on a daily basis. 
The most popular treatment at the time for scars, wrinkles, spots and discolouration of the skin was in fact mercury. Mercury did succeed in removing any skin complaint, however this was because it chemically corroded the layers of skin and by doing so in fact caused worse scarring than it had removed. Despite it's ill effects, mercury was used in this manner for many centuries. 

In 1609 Hugh Plat wrote a book entitled 'Delightes for Ladies' which contained a number of treatments for skin complaints.

To help a face that is red or pimpled
Dissolve common salte in the juice of Lemmons, and within a linnen cloth, pat the patients face that is full of heate or pimples. It cureth in a few dreſſings. 16. To help a face that is red or pimpled. Dissolve common salt in the juice of Lemons, and within a linen cloth, pat the patient's face that is full of heat or pimples. It cures in a few dressings.

To take away spots and freckles fro- the face or hands. 
The sappe that issueth out of a Birch tree in great aboundance, being opened in March or Aprill, with a receiuer of glasse ſet vnder the boring thereof to receiue the ſame, doth perform the ſame moſt excellently & maketh the skin very cleare. This ſap will disolue pearl, a ſecret not known vnot many. 

How to take away any pimple from the face. 

Brimstone ground with the oyl of Turpentine, and applied to any pimple on houre, maketh the flesh to rise spungeous, which being annointed with the thicke oyle of butter that ariseth in the morning from new milke sodden a little ouer night, will heale and scale away in a fewe daies, leauing a faire skinne behinde. This is a good skinning salue. 

Beauty patches- made against the law

"Our ladies have lately entertained a vain custom of spotting their faces, out of an affectation of a mole, to set off their beauty, such as Venus had; and it is well if one black patch serves to make their faces remarkable, for some fill their visages full of them, varied unto all manner of shapes and figures." - Artificial Changeling, John Bulwer, 1653

A few decades later into the seventeenth century and the invention of 'beauty patches' appeared. Beauty patches were small pieces of material, usually velvet or silk, and they were cut into shapes so as to not only be placed over skin blemishes to hide them but also to look pretty. Such shapes included stars, hearts, diamonds and crescent moons. These patches were worn by both women and men, on the face and body. Soon these patches became worn for fashionable reasons rather than purely concealment of blemishes. A secret language even developed about the wearing of these patches based upon where they were positioned. If it was placed near to the mouth, this meant that the person was flirtatious. One placed on the right cheek signified that the person was married, and on the left cheek signified an engaged person. And one placed at the corner of the eye suggested that the person was someone's mistress.
The shapes and meanings attached to the patches became increasingly complex, as described in the following passage which mentions patches in shapes of a coach and horses.

"And yet the figures emblematic are,               

Which our she wantons so delight to weare. 
The Coach and Horses with the hurrying wheels, 
Show both their giddy brains and gadding heels; 
The Cross and Crosslets in one face combined, 
Demonstrate the cross humours of their mind; 
The Bra's of the bowls doth let us see, 
They'll play at rubbers, and the mistresse bo; 
The Rings do in them the black art display, 
That spirits in their circles raise and lay; 
But, oh ! the sable Starrs that you descry 
Benights their day, and speaks the darkened sky. 
The several Moons that in their faces range, 
Eclipse proud Proteus in his various change; 
The long slash and the short denote the skars, 
Their skirmishes have gaind in Cupid's wars. 
For those, that into patches clip the Crown, 
"f is time to take such pride and treason down." - On painted and spotted faces, from 'A wonder of wonders: or, A metamorphosis of fair faces voluntarily transformed into foul visages. Or, an invective against black-spotted faces', by R Smith, 1662

Street peddlers of the seventeenth century had a rhyme they sang to sell the beauty patches;
"Heer patches are of ev'ry cut for pimples and for scarrs
Heer's all the wand'ring planett signs
And some of the fixed starrs.
Already gummed to make them stick
They need no other sky
Nor starrs, for Lilly for to view to tell your fortunes by.
Come lads and lasses, what do you lack
Here's weare of all prices
Here's long and short
Here's wide and straight
Heer are things of all sizes." - Bourse of Reformation, 1658

Beauty patches pedlar

The use of beauty patches continued to be worn right up until the end of the 19th century, used by both the rich and poor.
Elizabeth, the wife of Samuel Pepys wore them, and on the 22nd November 1660 he declared her the prettier for wearing them and now she was even prettier than Princess Henrietta (daughter of King Charles I).
During the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14), the wearing of patches were used to show political allegiance; Whigs wore patches on the right cheek, and Tories wore them on the left side, and those who were politically neutral wore them on both cheeks.

The 19th century saw a change in the treatment of skin blemishes away from beauty patches and the wearing of make-up. The Victorian age brought with it a new attitude to make-up in that a natural face was more desirable and therefore the focus shifted from concealing the blemishes to curing them.
A 19th century treatment for the removal of pimples;
1oz Sulphur water
1/4oz acetated liquor of ammonia
1gr Liquor of potassa
2oz white wine vinegar
2oz distilled water
To be applied twice a day.

Wednesday, 10 December 2014

The Spaniard and the Earl of Derby

One of the Spanish maids of honour that accompanied Princess Catharine of Aragon to England upon her marriage to Prince Arthur in 1502 was Maria de Rojas (b.1488). Maria was the daughter of Francesco, Count of Salinas. After the death of Prince Arthur, Maria remained in England with Princess Catharine, and in 1504 she was being courted by the Earl of Derby. 

Thomas Stanley

Thomas Stanley (1485-1521), at the time of the courtship, had only recently succeeded his grandfather as the Earl of Derby in November 1504, as Thomas' father had already died. 
Thomas Stanley was betrothed in 1498 to Elizabeth Wells, a granddaughter of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. An advantageous marriage for the future earl, however as Elizabeth Wells' mother Princess Cecily of York had died in 1498, the betrothal was cancelled as the marriage did not take place. Therefore, in 1504, Thomas Stanley was a young and wealthy nobleman - and quite without a wife. He would have a matrimonial prize among the ladies of the royal court, who would unquestioningly marry well as he had been previously betrothed to a daughter of a king.

It would appear that Catharine of Aragon approved of the match between Maria and Thomas, and wrote to her parents, the King and Queen of Spain, about giving their permission for the marriage to take place. King Henry VII of England also gave his approval for the marriage, however as Maria was a Spanish subject, he chose to leave the decision to the Spanish monarchs.
However, there was someone who was highly opposed to the marriage going ahead; Catharine of Aragon's duenna Dona Elvira Manuel. Elvira wanted Maria to marry her son Inigo Manrique. Inigo was also a member of Princess Catharine's household, as the Master of her Pages. Maria herself was a matrimonial prize, as she was the only child, and heiress, of a wealthy landowner in Spain.

The following letter was written by De Puebla, the Spanish ambassador at the English royal court, to the King and Queen of Spain.

Her Highness the Princess is writing at the present time to your Highnesses ; and, according to what she has told me, it is about a marriage of Doña Maria de Rojas, respecting which I desire to make known to your Highnesses what has taken place. Some few days ago the King's step-father, who was Constable of the Realm and Earl of Derby, died. He left as his heir, a grandson, the son of his eldest son, who is 22 years of age. But, in addition to what he has by right of succession from his father, he inherits from his mother, so that he is, at present, the best match in the kingdom. I have told Doña Rojas she must not venture to conclude such a match without the permission of your Highnesses, telling her what I had done in a similar case. At the same time I have not neglected to learn the wishes of the King of England ; and I find that it is quite certain he desires this marriage more for Doña Maria De Rojas than for any other lady in his kingdom. Notwithstanding, the King does not wish to conclude the matter, excepting with the consent of the family, who make some little difficulties. But even supposing that they might, in the end, consent, I would not meddle in the matter without being first directed by your Highnesses. I entreat your Highnesses, therefore, to inform me what you think will be most for your interests, and if you should decide that I am to conclude this business, it will be necessary to know what will be given with her for a marriage portion, since the property which Doña Maria has in Spain is in the hands of your Highnesses. For, if the future husband of Doña de Rojas should not be able to obtain her property in Spain, this, or any other marriage, would be impossible, even with a man possessed of much less money. 5 Dec 1504

It can be presumed that the response from the Spanish monarchs was not one of approval as Maria returned to Spain not long after this letter was sent. She was replaced in her position in Catharine's household by Maria de Salinas. Once back in Spain, Maria was married to Don Alvero de Mendoza y Guzman. The couple had four children together; Luis, Alvero, Ines and Francisca. 
It was not long after that Thomas Stanley married, on the 17th December 1505, to Anne Hastings. Thomas and Anne had three children together; Edward, Margaret and John.

Due to Maria's close relationship with Catharine of Aragon during the period of her first marriage to Prince Arthur of England and the few years after, Maria was sought out in Spain for her testimony concerning the divorce of Queen Catharine and King Henry VIII. Maria was questioned via written correspondence from the English royal court to the Lord Mayor of Madrid, near to where Maria was living with her husband and children.

Wednesday, 3 December 2014

More neede of a good mistress than a new fashioned gowne

Alice Scudamore (1569-80) was the youngest daughter of John Scudamore (1542-1623) and his first wife Eleanor Croft. Alice's mother Eleanor died giving birth to her and her father did not remarry until 1574. When her father did remarry to Mary Shelton (1550-1603), it was kept a secret from all so that the queen did not find out and punish the couple. Mary Shelton could not have played a large role in her step-children's lives as she lived at court, in constant attendance upon the queen, whilst the children lived away from court. Therefore young Alice was left without a mother figure in her life, as well as her father being away firstly studying law and then later living at court. This lack of adult supervision in her life appears to have resulted in her being badly behaved, which was noticed by her family members.

One Christmas during her childhood, her father John's younger brother George Scudamore (1552-1633) came to stay with the family at their home of Holme Lacy in Hertfordshire. After this stay George wrote to John and complained of Alice's behaviour.

Januarie the 13
Sir: I was so carried awaie with Christmas though[t]s that I altogeather forgote to
speake of what I intended towchinge my cosine Eles [Alice]. Your daughter, who
have more neede of a good mistress than a new fashioned gowne. I knowe wher she
nowe leaveth, that her rome is better well come than her companie, for she never
inquereth when hit is daie before tenne of the clocke, that she maybe reddie for
dinner by xi [11 o’clock].This can not prove well; Mrs. Pie or my Lady Aubrie
(gentlewoman of great sobrietie fit to tame so unrulie a young gentelwoman as she is
if report may be beleaved) are to be inquered and that speadelie. So wishinge that some spedie course may be taken for reformacion and that homlacie (thoughe to your
trouble) may holde her for a time. I end and bid you fare well restinge yours to
command: George Scudamore. 

Alice Scudamore died in November 1580 in Hertfordshire, at the age of just eleven years old.

Wednesday, 26 November 2014

No one ever bought her husband more dearly

Mary Shelton

Mary Shelton (1550-1603) was a maternal cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, she became a Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to the queen in November 1568, and later in January 1571 a Chamberer of the Privy Chamber. Mary's grandparents, John and Anne (nee Boleyn) Shelton had been governors of Hatfield when Queen Elizabeth was an infant.

Queen Elizabeth had a reputation for her dislike of marriage and her refusal of permission to many of her ladies in waiting for their proposed marriages. This attitude of the queen often led to her ladies, often relatives of the queen, marrying in secret. When the queen discovered these secret marriages and pregnancies of her ladies, they could be punished by having their titles removed, banishment from court and even imprisonment in the Tower. 

John Scudamore

In January 1574 Mary Shelton married in secret to John Scudamore (1542-1623). It is likely that the couple were married by a Catholic priest, due to John's faith. Mary became his second wife after his first wife Eleanor Croft had died in 1569, leaving him to raise their five children; Henry (b.1561), John (b.1567), James (b.1568), Ursula (b.1568) and Alice (b.1569). 
John was a Catholic, which may have contributed to the fact that Queen Elizabeth disapproved of the match between John and Mary. In 1573 John had asked his father-in-law James Croft to speak to the queen and question whether she would permit him to marry Mary Shelton. The queen refused. It was essential that the queen give permission for Mary's marriage as not only was Queen Elizabeth the head of the Boleyn family, but also Mary was her ward due to both of her parents dying within two weeks of each other in 1558. 

It was impossible to hide their marriage from the queen for long, and she found out about it soon after. When the queen found out about their marriage, she was furious and flew into a rage; she hit Mary with a hairbrush which broke one of her fingers. The reason for Mary's broken finger was later blamed on a falling candlestick. Mary was sent away from court, however by October 1574 she was back at court and had been promoted to Lady of the Privy Chamber. 

A maid of honour to the queen, Eleanor Brydges, wrote a letter to Edward Manners, Earl of Rutland which mentioned the aftermath of Mary Shelton's marriage.
"the Queen hath used Mary Shelton very ill for her marriage: she hath dealt liberal both with blows and evil words, and hath not yet granted her one ever bought her husband more dearly"

Mary remained with Queen Elizabeth until the end of her reign, becoming one of her closest friends and favourite sleeping companions. As a result of this, Mary was hardly away from court and very infrequently managed to visit her husbands estates of Holme Lacy in Hertfordshire. However, due to this position Mary became one of the most influential ladies of Queen Elizabeth's court. Mary outlived her queen by only a few months, dying on the 15th August 1603. 

Wednesday, 19 November 2014

Catherine Willoughby, Queen of Poland

In June 1545 Elisabeth of Austria (b.1526), the first wife of Sigismund Augustus (1520-72), King of Poland, died, and therefore the Polish king was searching for a second bride. King Sigismund sent an ambassador to the English royal court of King Henry VIII a year later in 1546.

Catherine, Duchess of Suffolk by Hans Holbein the Younger.jpg
Catherine Willoughby

The Polish ambassador had come to the English court to offer a proposal of marriage to King Henry's eldest daughter Princess Mary. However, King Henry refused this match. The Polish ambassador then turned to the second choice of English bride for King Sigismund, Catherine Willoughby, the Duchess of Suffolk. Catherine's husband Charles Brandon had died in August 1545 and as a woman of only twenty seven years old and having had two sons already, she could be considered an ideal bride for a king needing an heir. 

The match between the King of Poland and Catherine Willoughby did not proceed, whether Catherine refused the idea or the Polish king did not find her to be of high enough status, is unknown. 
King Sigismund married in 1547 in secret to his mistress Barbara Radziwill (1520-51). And later in 1553 he married for a third time to Catherine (1533-72), the younger sister of his first wife Elisabeth.

In 1555 Catherine Willoughby was forced to flee England due to the Catholic rule of Queen Mary I. Catherine and her second husband Richard Bertie (1516-82) were of the Protestant faith and therefore faced persecution if they remained in England. Taking their daughter Susan with them, as well as Catherine being pregnant at that time with their son Peregrine, the couple fled to Protestant mainland Europe. The Berties fled to Germany, however there were warrants for their arrest for heresy from Queen Mary which followed them wherever they went.

A portrait of Sigismund II Augustus, in a black hat with a white feather, a white ruff on his neck, and an ornate gold chain around his neck.
King Sigismund Augustus of Poland

King Sigismund was highly tolerant of religious differences, and managed to maintain a successful balance between the Catholics and Protestants in his kingdom throughout his reign. His second wife Barbara was a Calvinist. 
In 1557 King Sigismund heard about the Berties' situation through Jan Laski, the reformer, and gave the family refuge in his kingdom. In addition to this, he named Catherine regent of the province of Samogitia - modern day Lithuania - which gave the couple rank and status during their exile. Samogitia was a largely Protestant area at this time, and the Berties were given a castle in the county of Crozan to live in. He also granted Richard Bertie the Earldom of Crolan as well as the position of Governor of Samogitia. The Bertie family lived quite contentedly in Samogitia, and the education of Catherine and Richard meant that their rule of the province was successful. The Berties returned to England in 1559 after the accession to the throne of Queen Elizabeth I.

In 1624 playwright Thomas Drue (1586-1627) wrote a play called 'The Duchess of Suffolk', which incorporated the story of the King of Poland courting Duchess Catherine. The play was a heavily biased and emphasised Catherine's Protestant beliefs as well as her second marriage to Richard Bertie, who had previously been a servant in her household, after being sought out by many noblemen for her hand in marriage. By describing the perils which Catherine survived due to Protestant persecution, having to flee her country, travel through storms and be hunted down across Europe, only served to criticise Catholics and their actions. 

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Wednesday, 12 November 2014

The Barlow Brides of Bishops

William Barlow (1485-68) was the Bishop of Chichester under Queen Elizabeth I.
William was Bishop of St Asaph and St David's in 1536, then in 1548 he became Bishop of Bath and Wells. William Barlow and his family can be seen as key players in promoting the religious changes in England during the Tudor period.

William Barlow was the first Protestant Bishop in England. His elder brother Thomas had been chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn. A third Barlow brother, John, who was also a chaplain, was also a friend to Queen Anne Boleyn. John was involved in the Great Matter, the divorce of King Henry VIII from his first wife Queen Catharine of Aragon. In 1528, it was John Barlow who discovered evidence that Cardinal Wolsey had betrayed the king whilst in Rome discussing the matter with the Pope. This only strengthened Anne Boleyn's hatred of the Cardinal and aided in his downfall in the following year. John Barlow became Dean of Worcester in 1544, and remained so until the accession of Queen Mary in 1553. Another brother, Thomas, was the Rector of Catfield, and a fourth brother Roger was a merchant and travelled to the Americas.

William Barlow was the first English Bishop to marry, before marriage was an option for clergymen in England. By 1544 William had married Agatha Wellesbourne (1505-95), and due to clerical celibacy being a requirement for Catholic bishops, William resigned his bishopric when Queen Mary I succeeded the throne in 1553. He and his family were forced to flee to Germany and Poland for the duration of Queen Mary's reign, and only returned to England after her death in 1558.

Children of William and Agatha's marriage include;

+William Barlow (1544-1625) After attending Oxford University, William took Holy Orders and eventually became Treasurer of Lichfield Cathedral in 1588. In the reign of King James I he became chaplain to the king's son Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, and later in 1615 he was made Archdeacon of Salisbury. He married a woman called Julia and the couple had six children together. William left university with a keen interest in mathematics, and developed key theories about magnetism.

+ John Barlow (d.1634)

William and Agatha also had five daughters, all of whom went on to marry bishops.

+ Anne (d.1597) m1. Augustin Bradbridge (d.1567)
                           m2. Herbert Westfaling (1531-1602), Bishop of Hereford (1586)
                            + Herbert Westfaling
                            + Anne Westfaling m. William Jeffries
                            + Margaret Westfaling m. Richard Edes, Dean of Worcester
                            + Elizabeth Westfaling m. Robert Walwyn

Herbert Westfaling

+ Elizabeth (1538-75) m. William Day (1529-96), Bishop of Winchester (Nov 1595- Sept 1596)
Children of Elizabeth and William were;
                                      + William Day
                                      + Richard Day
                                      + Thomas Day
                                      + Susan Day m. Mr Cox
                                      + Rachel Day m. Mr Barker
                                      + Alice Day m. Thomas Ridley
                                      + Elizabeth Day

+ Margaret (1533-1601) m. William Overton (1525-1609), Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (1580)
                                         + Susan Overton m. Thomas Playsted
                                         + Valentine Overton (1565-1646) m. Isabel Higgenson

Tobie (or Tobias) Matthew from NPG.jpg
Tobias Matthew

+ Frances (1551-1629) m1. Matthew Parker (1551-74), son of Archbishop Parker
                                       + Matthew Parker (1575-6)
                                      m2. Tobias Matthew (1546-1628), Bishop of Durham (1595), Archbishop of York (1606)
                                       + Tobie Matthew (1577-1655) MP
                                       + John Matthew (b.1580)
                                       + Samuel (d.1601)
When Tobias was given the post of Dean of Durham in 1583, the couple moved to the north of England so that he could take up the posting, this move did not please Frances and she wished to return to the south as soon as possible. Frances and Tobias fell out with, and later disinherited, their eldest son Tobie due to his conversion to Roman Catholicism. Tobias eventually forgave his son in 1623, however Frances never did. Frances also fell out with her son John, however she raised John's two daughters Frances and Dorcas. Frances had a reputation in Durham for the education of young girls. Frances' pride in her family was reflected in her memorial which read in part that 'a bishop was her father, an archbishop her father-in-law; she had four bishops her brethren and an archbishop her husband'. 

+ Antonia (1552-98) m. William Wickham (1539-95), Bishop of Lincoln (1584), Bishop of Winchester (1595)
William Wickham preached at the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1587.
Children of Antonia and William were;
                                  + Henry Wickham (d.1641), Archdeacon of York
                                  + Thomas Wickham
                                  + Barlow Wickham (d.1617)
                                  + William Wickham (b.1598)
                                  + Frances Wickham m. Thomas Wolriche
                                  + Susan Wickham
                                  + Anne Wickham
                                  + Elizabeth Wickham

Agatha Barlow, nee Wellesbourne, died in 1595. She was extremely proud of her achievement of marrying all of her daughters to bishops. This was reflected in her memorial.

"Barlow's wife, Agatha, doth here remain Bishop, then exile, Bishop again. So long she lived, so well her children sped. She saw five bishops her five daughters wed". - St Mary's, Eaton, Hampshire

Wednesday, 5 November 2014

Execution of a Prince

On the 19th March 1330, Edmund, Duke of Kent (b.1301), the youngest son of King Edward I of England was executed for treason.

The crime which Edmund accused of was that he believed his brother King Edward II, who had died in 1327, was in fact still alive. He was described as being part of a plot to rescue Edward II from Corfe Castle in Dorset. It would appear that Edmund had been convinced by someone that his brother was alive and well, and his wife wrote letters to Edward which were intercepted and used as evidence against Edmund. By writing to his brother, Edmund had performed a treasonous act against the current king, his nephew Edward III, through his disloyalty to him in his offer to help his brother to regain his throne.

The Earl and Countess of Kent, Prince Edmund of Woodstock and Margaret Wake, Baroness Wake of Liddel
Edmund and Margaret

On the 14th March the arrest warrant for Edmund's wife Margaret Wake and their children was issued. Margaret and their three children - Edmund (1326-31), Margaret (1327-52) and Joan (1328-85) - were imprisoned at Salisbury Castle with only two maids to attend on them. It was there that Margaret gave birth to the couple's fourth child, John (d.1352), on the 7th April.

On 16th March, Edmund's confession was read out in Parliament. Edmund offered to walk barefoot from Winchester to London with a rope around his neck as punishment for his actions, however this request was denied.

"The will of this court is that you shall lose both life and limb, and that your heirs shall be disinherited for evermore, save the grace of our lord the king".

On the morning of the 19th of March, Edmund was taken to the scaffold wearing only his shirt. The executioner who had been employed for that day had fled and could not be found. The search to find a replacement executioner took several hours as it was proving impossible to find someone willing to execute a royal prince, especially considering the charges brought against him were viewed by many as nothing more than trumped up charges to rid Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer of a political enemy. The offer was made to all prisoners who had been sentenced to death themselves, that if they were to step forward and perform the execution, they would be granted a royal pardon. A latrine cleaner who was awaiting execution stepped forward and offered to execute the prince in exchange for his own life.

It was this execution which led to King Edward III seizing power from his mother Queen Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, a few weeks shy of his coming of age in October 1330. In the Parliament of November 1330 King Edward passed a Bill posthumously pardoning Prince Edmund of all charges. Which indicates that the truth was that the charges had been fabricated and exaggerated to suit Isabella and Roger's aims. King Edward took on the responsibility of the family that Edmund had left behind; the children were raised at the royal court and Edmund's daughter Joan became a favourite of Edward's queen, Philippa of Hainault.

Through his daughter Joan, Edmund was the grandfather to King Richard II, as well as the ancestor to King Henry VII and all subsequent monarchs of England.

Thursday, 30 October 2014

Henry Carey's Venetian son

Emilia Bassano (1569-1645), the illegitimate daughter of Venetian court musician Baptiste Bassano (d.1576) and Margaret Johnson (d.1587), became the mistress to Henry Carey, Baron Hunsdon (1526-96), in 1587 when she was just eighteen years old.

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Emilia Bassano
Emilia was noted as having black hair and black eyes. She had inherited her father's musical talent and she played the virginals. After the death of her father Baptiste in 1576, Emilia went to live in the household of Susan Bertie, Countess of Kent. It was in the Bertie household that Emilia received a Humanist education, as Bertie believed in educating girls to the same level as boys. Later, she lived in the household of Margaret Clifford and her daughter Anne Clifford.
Whilst living as his mistress, Carey gave Emilia a pension of £40 a year, as well as frequent gifts of jewels.

In 1592 Emilia found she was pregnant with Carey's child. Emilia was quickly married off to her first cousin Alphonso Lanier (1567-1613), another court musician, on October 18th 1592. Carey gifted Emilia with a sum of money on this occasion. Her marriage to Lanier appears to have been the end of her relationship with Henry Carey. The following year in 1593, Emilia gave birth to a son, named Henry Lanier, after his biological father.
Emilia's marriage was not a happy one, and the couple only had one child together; a daughter, Odillya (1598-9).

It appears that Henry Lanier inherited the musical talent of his mother's musical Bassano family; trained by his uncle Andrea Lanier (1582-1660), he played the flute and became one of the king's flautists in September 1629.
Henry Lanier married in 1623 to Joyce Mansfield, and they had two children together;
+ Mary (b.1627) m. Henry Young in 1652
+ Henry (b.1629)

In 1611 Emilia published a book of poems entitled "Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum", at which time she was the first woman in England to have done so. In 1613 her husband Alphonse died, and Emilia set up a school to provide for herself and her family. However due to the school gaining a bad reputation due to arrests over rent prices in 1617 and 1619, the school lasted less than ten years.

Due to her connection with Henry Carey, the patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men theatre company, it has been suggested by historians that Emilia was in fact Shakespeare's 'Dark Lady'. It has also been suggested that Emilia's mother Margaret Johnson was a relative of Robert Johnson, a lutenist who joined Shakespeare's company.

Henry Lanier died in 1633. Due to his death, his mother Emilia was providing financially for her two grandchildren in 1635. Emilia died in 1645.

Friday, 24 October 2014

Anne Stanhope and Catherine Grey

Anne Seymour, nee Stanhope, (1510-87) had inherited Hanworth Palace in Middlesex from her husband Edward Seymour (1500-52) after his death. Hanworth had originally belonged to King Henry VIII's last queen, Katherine Parr and after her death had passed to her last husband Thomas Seymour, and when he was executed it fell into the hands of his brother Edward.
It was at Hanworth Palace in 1553 that a romance began between Anne Seymour's eldest son Edward and Lady Catherine Grey.
Jane Seymour, the eldest daughter of Anne Seymour became close friends with Catherine Grey; a friendship which Catherine's cousin Queen Mary I encouraged. Jane Seymour constantly suffered with illnesses throughout her life. Anne Seymour was living at Hanworth with her second husband, Francis Newdigate, and her children at this time, and Catherine would frequently go and visit Jane at Hanworth.
It was during one of these visits to Jane at Hanworth in the summer of 1558 that Catherine spent time with Anne's elder brother Edward. The young couple had a surprising amount of things in common with each other; both of their father's had been executed for treason, both were reported to have been quite attractive and both were still without a sure footing in the world due to their lack of marriage proposals.
The relationship between Catherine and Edward must have been clear to see by those at Hanworth as his mother Anne began to ask him about his intentions towards Catherine. He told her that he enjoyed visiting with Catherine, and that his mother should not worry about Queen Mary giving permission for the pair to marry as the fact that the queen had sent Catherine to live at Hanworth, and therefore her feelings on the matter were clear in that she supported it. However, the fact that Queen Mary approved of the couple's relationship no longer mattered as Mary died in November 1558. Elizabeth Tudor was now queen and her bad relationship with Catherine was well-known.
The couple still continued their romance, with the gentle encouragement of Jane Seymour, and in December 1560 they finally married. The marriage took place in secret, with Edward's sister Jane as their only witness. In July 1561 the couple were discovered as Catherine would hide her pregnancy no longer, and both were sent to the Tower. It was impossible for Catherine to prove that her marriage to Edward had been legal as their witness Jane had died of tuberculosis in March 1561. 
After Catherine and Edward were imprisoned in the Tower, Anne wrote the following letter to William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth's right hand man.

22 August 1561. Anne, Duchess of Somerset, to William Cecil.

good master secretary heryng a great brute that my lady kateryne gray yt in the tower and allso that she shold say she it maryed allredy to my sonne I coulld not chouse but troble yo in my adres and sorow therof and allthough I myght upon my sonne ernest and often protestying unto me the contrary desyre yo to be an humble sutor on my behalf her talet myght not be redyted before my sonne dyd answer yet in stede therof my fyrst and theyf sute yt that the quenes maty wyll thynke and juge of me in thys matter accordyng to my desere and menyng and of my sonne have so moch forgotten her highnes rallying hym to honor and so moch ovor thatte hys bounden dutye and so serve abused + her maty beuyguytey yet never was his mother prevy or consentyng ther unto. I wyll not fyll my letter how moch I have skooled and persuadded hym to the contrary nor yet wyll desyer that yowth and feare maye help expense or lessen hys faute but only that her highnes wyll have that opynyon of me as of one that nether for chyld nor frend shall wyllyngly neglect the dutye of a faythfull subject and to conserve my credyte in her maty good master secretary stand now my frynd that the wylfulnes of myne unruly chylde do not mynysg her maty favor towardes me and thus so parplexyd in this dyscomfortable rumor I end not knowyng how to procede nor what to do therin and therfor good master secretary let me understand somme comfort of my gryef from the quenes maty and some consell from yor selfe and so do love yo to god
your asuryd frynd to my powre,
Anne Somerset

Edward was only released from the Tower after Catherine had died; in 1568 he was sent, with his eldest son, to live with his mother Anne. Anne Seymour supported John Hales' 'Discourse on the succession', which was written in favour of Catherine Grey's claim to be Queen Elizabeth's heir. Although this was not successful, the support that she gave to it demonstrates at least a level of support and affection for her daughter-in-law. Although, another reason for her support may have been that she thought it would advance the suit of her grandsons and their claim to the throne of England.

Friday, 17 October 2014

The Farriner family of the Great Fire

It was in the Farriner's bakery on Pudding Lane that on the morning of the 2nd September 1666 that the Great Fire of London began. Farriner was appointed Conduct of the King's Bakehouse and was the provider of bread for the Royal Navy during the Anglo-Dutch war that was being fought at the time.

Marriage record of Thomas Farriner and Hanna Matthews, 1637

The baker, Thomas Farriner, a widower, lived there with  his three children; Thomas (d.1677), Hanna (1643-71) and Mary. Thomas (1615-70) had married on the 9th July 1637 to Hanna Matthews, who had died the year before in 1665.
During the fire, although Thomas and his three children escaped from the house that was then alight, their housemaid was too afraid and perished in the flames. After the Great Fire, Thomas Farriner rebuilt his house and bakery, and returned to work as a respected baker. Thomas Farriner, his son Thomas and daughter Hanna were signatories on the Bill against Robert Hubert, the man accused of starting the Great Fire in their bakery. Hubert was hanged at Tyburn on 27th October 1666 for his crime of arson.
When Thomas Farriner died on the 20th December 1670, he left one hundred pounds to be paid over four years to each of his daughters, and with exception of a few small bequests, the remainder of his estate was left to his son and heir Thomas.

Hanna married on the 18th July 1667 to Nicholas Day (d.1695), a baker. The couple had the following children;
+ Thomas Day (1668-9)
+ Hanna Day (b.1670)
+ Thomas Day (b.1671)
Hanna died shortly after giving birth to her third child on the 13th August 1671. Nicholas Day later remarried.

Marriage record of Thomas Farriner and Martha Towse, 1671

Thomas Farriner, the younger, married Martha Towse on the 30th November 1671.
It appears that Thomas and Martha had no surviving children at the time of Thomas' death in December 1677.
Thomas had been an apprentice baker to his father, and later inherited the bakery to run himself. In his Will of 1677 Thomas left his baking and residential premises to firstly his wife Martha, and after her death they were to pass to his sister Mary Halford. As well as this, he left Mary one hundred pounds which was owed to him from the Marquis of Dorset, and also five pounds for Mary and her husband Thomas to buy mourning clothing.
It would appear that there was a disagreement over the Will of Thomas Farriner, as in 1677 Martha, now a widow, took Mary and Thomas Halford to the Chancery Court.

Mary Farriner also married a baker, Thomas Halford (d.1705) early in 1666 and was therefore not living with her father at the time of the Great Fire.
Mary and Thomas had the following children;
+ Thomas Halford (b.1672)
+ Hanna Halford (b.1673) m. John Willett (a baker)
                                           + Hanna Willett
                                           + Mary Willett m. Walter Reily
                                           + Martha Willett
+ John Halford (1676-81)
+ Martha Halford (1678-1682)
+ Thomas Halford (b&d.1681)
+ Thomas Halford (b.1683)

Mary died before 1695, and her husband Thomas remarried.

Thursday, 16 October 2014

Queen Elizabeth's two Blanches

Blanche Parry (1508-90) was the daughter of Harry Myles, Sheriff of Herefordshire, and his wife Alice Milborne (b.1475). The family were a Welsh speaking household, as Harry Myles was a Welshman, and Blanche is sometime recorded by her Welsh name; Blanche ap Harry.

Tomb of Blanche Parry (left) kneeling to Queen Elizabeth I
The children of Harry and Alice were;
+ Blanche
+ Symond - never married but had four illegitimate children; Myles, John, Elizabeth and Jane (who                         married Griffith Jones).
+ Myles m. Elinor Scudamore
               + Joan m. Watkyn Vaughan
                            + Rowland Vaughan (1559-1629)
               + Elizabeth m. Rowland Vaughan
+ Elizabeth m. Thomas Vaughan
+ Olive m. William Cecil (d.1598)
+ Sybell
+ John

Blanche Parry aided her relatives with positions at court; her great-nephew Rowland Vaughan (b.1559) spent time at the royal court in the 1590's. Blanche's sister Olive married a member of the Cecil family, a connection acknowledged by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, as he often referred to Blanche Parry as 'cousin'.

Alice Milborne was the eighth of thirteen daughters, and heiresses, to Simon Milborne (1435-1522) and his wife Jane Baskerville (b.1451) of Herefordshire. On both her paternal and maternal lines of descent, Alice Milborne was able to trace her family back to knights who had come over with William the Conqueror from Normandy.
Simon and Jane's children included;
+ Alice m. Harry Myles m2. Thomas Baskerville
+ Blanche m1. James Whitney m2. Sir William Herbert
                  + Robert                    + Charles
                  + James                     + Thomas m. Anne Lucy
                  + Watkin
                  + Elizabeth m. Mr Morgan
+ Anne (b.1465) m. William Rudhall
+ Catherine (b.1466) m. Thomas Barton
                                   + Griffin Barton
+ Joyce (b.1467) m. Thomas Hyett
                             + James Hyett
+ Sybil (1468-1537) m1. Richard Hackluyt m2. John Breynton
+ Margaret (1480-1522) m. John Bishop
                                         + Anthony Bishop
+ Juliana (b.1485)
+ Eleanor (1493-1530) m. John Moore
+ Agnes (b.1480) m. Thomas Walwyn
+ Joan (b.1484)
+ Jane (1498-1535) m. Richard Cornwall
+ Elizabeth (1470-1514) m1. Thomas Mornington m2. John Whittington
+ Henry (1482-1520)

As Simon's only son Henry had predeceased him two years earlier, his fortune was inherited equally between his thirteen daughters, and if they had died, their portion would pass to their oldest living child; as seen in the case of his daughters Catherine, Joyce and Margaret.

It was Simon's daughter Blanche Milborne, Lady Troy who brought her niece, and goddaughter, Blanche Parry to the royal court. Blanche Milborne was a close friend of Queen Anne Boleyn through Elizabeth Somerset, Countess of Worcester. In 1533 she recommended a Welshwoman, Mrs Pendred, as wet nurse for Queen Anne to employ for Princess Elizabeth, a decision which was later overruled by King Henry VIII. Therefore, it follows that Blanche would be involved in the Tudor princess' life. Due to her position as Mistress of the Household for all three children of King Henry VIII, her niece Blanche Parry knew Princess Elizabeth from the time she was a baby, and would continue to serve her loyally throughout her life until her own death in 1590. Blanche Herbert finished her term as Lady Mistress of the royal children's household in 1545, and from a letter written by Roger Tyrwhitt it can be surmised that Blanche Herbert had trained her niece Blanche Parry to be her successor, however the position was instead given to Kat Ashley. Despite her retirement, Blanche Herbert was paid a pension by Princess Elizabeth as late as 1552; she received 70 shillings twice a year, which was half the amount of her wage when she was employed.
Blanche Milborne's daughter Elizabeth Whitney married a Mr Morgan, and the couple were the parents of Anne Morgan. Anne Morgan married the queen's cousin Henry Carey; a prestigious marriage.

Sunday, 12 October 2014

Thomas More's adopted daughter

Margaret 'Mercy' Giggs (1508-70) was born the daughter of Thomas Giggs, from Burnham in Norfolk and his wife Olive (Alice) Hoo. Thomas Giggs was the servant of a London Merchant who, with his wife, lived on the same road as Thomas More and his wife Joanna Colt in Cheapside, London. Due to Olive giving birth to her daughter Margaret Giggs so soon before the birth of Margaret 'Meg' More, Olive became wet nurse to the More's new baby. Shortly after Margaret More had reached the age of no longer needing a wet nurse, in 1510, Olive Giggs died. Her father Thomas Giggs, due to his employment, was often away from home travelling abroad. Therefore it was decided that the young Margaret would be taken in by the More family and raised by them as their adoptive child. However, there were no official documents making Margaret a legal child or a Ward of the Mores.

Margaret Giggs was 'as dear as though she were a daughter' to Thomas More, who raised her with his children as own of his own. Due to them being the same age, and Olive Giggs having cared for both girls as babies, Margaret Giggs and Margaret More became the closest of friends. She was called Margaret More's 'cognata'; meaning sharing a relationship by birth. Margaret Giggs was present at the execution of Thomas More, and along with her sister Margaret Roper she buried him in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Margaret kept the blood-stained shirt that Thomas More had died in, giving a portion of it to Margaret Roper's maid Dorothy Harris, nee Colley.

Margaret was particularly skilled at Mathematics, and in Thomas More's last letter to her he enclosed her algorism stone which he had taken with him to the Tower. Like her husband, Margaret was also highly skilled in medical lore, which she had received lessons in; when Thomas More was sick with tertian fever and his doctors had given him up for dead, Margaret managed to cure him.

Evidence of Margaret's care and medical knowledge can be seen in an event which occurred as a consequence of the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536. In order to suppress the London Carthusians as part of the wider suppression of all monasteries in England at that time, two of its members, John Rochester and James Waiworth, had already been executed and in May 1537 ten more of its members were imprisoned in Newgate prison. None of these ten men had been involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace, and they were never tried, but left in the prison to starve to death. The ten comprised of three priests - Richard Bere, Thomas Johnson, Thomas Green - and one deacon named John Davy, as well as six laybrothers; William Greenwood, Thomas Scryven, Robert Salt, Walter Pierson, Thomas Redyng and William Horn. The men had been chained to tightly that they could not move to feed themselves or help themselves in any way. Margaret heard about the conditions that her fellow Catholics were being kept it, and after bribing the gaoler, she disguised herself as a milkmaid and went to attend upon the imprisoned men. The milk pail she carried with her was filled with food which she fed the men with her own hands. As a result of her care, the men were not dying as quickly as the authorities thought they would and an investigation was made. It appears that it was discovered that Margaret, or at least a woman, was visiting them and helping them to survive. Margaret was forced to stop her visits, however she made one final attempt to help them by trying to enter their cell from the roof, but this was proved useless. Between June and September nine of the Carthusians had died from starvation. The tenth survivor was the laybrother William Horn, who lived until 1540 at which time he was tried, sentenced to death and hanged at Tyburn.

Margaret married Dr John Clement (1500-72), who had previously been tutor to the children of Thomas More from 1515-8. Clement was a Doctor of Medicine as well as a skilled scholar of Greek and Latin. He had travelled with Thomas More on his embassy in 1515 to Bruges and Antwerp. In the 1520's he changed his career path and went to Italy to study medicine, on his way there visiting Belgium and meeting Erasmus. He graduated from the University of Siena with his medical degree in 1525. In his role as doctor he attended to Cardinal Wolsey in 1529, and later to Bishop Fisher in 1535. Some theorists suggest that due to John Clement's unknown origins and a number of hints left in paintings and letters, he is in fact living under an assumed name and in truth is Prince Richard, Duke of York, one of the Princes in the Tower.

Margaret and John married about 1526, about the time that Clement joined the royal household as a physician to the king. After their marriage they went to live at The Barge, which was leased in the names of Thomas More and his wife Alice. The Clements remained at that address even after 1542 when Thomas More's property was confiscated. In 1544 John became President of the College of Physicians.
Following the example of her own childhood, Margaret ensured that all of her children were educated; in particular they were taught Latin and Greek.
The children of Margaret and John were;
+ Thomas
Thomas attended Louvain University in 1547 for his Bachelors, then again in 1563 for his Masters degree.
+ Margaret (1539-1612)
Margaret joined St Ursula's convent in Louvain in 1557 and became Prioress after only being there a short while, and remained so for over forty years until her retirement in 1605 due to blindness.
+ Dorothy (b.1532)
Dorothy was a Poor Clare in Louvain.
+ Bridget m. Robert Redman
Bridget's son John Redman was a Catholic priest who was involved with the printing of Richard Smith's books.
+ Helen m. Thomas Prideaux
+ Winifred (1527-53) m.1544 William Rastell (1508-65)
William Rastell had been a printer, but had given this up and trained to be a lawyer at Lincoln's Inn, taking the bar in 1539. Rastell was Thomas More's nephew, being the son of his sister Elizabeth More, and he printed More's written works, and those of his family.
+ Caeser
Caeser became Dean of St Gudula's in Brussels.

As a well known Catholic family, the Mores and Clements were targets of persecution during the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth I. At the same time as his father-in-law Thomas More's imprisonment in the Tower, John was imprisoned in The Fleet, for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy.
The Clement family left England in 1549 as Catholic exiles and did not return until 1554, after Mary Tudor became Queen. John left in July 1549, with Margaret and the children following in October. Winifred and her husband William followed in December. The family settled in Louvain. When news of their departure reached the court, their home The Barge was confiscated by the king. The loss of their house also meant the loss of John's extensive library containing 180 books. Winifred died of a fever in July 1553 just four days after the death of King Edward VI, so William returned to England alone as the couple had no children together. William became a judge of the Queen's Bench in 1558. The Clements left England again in 1562 due to further restrictions on Catholic worship, and settled in Louvain. In 1568 they moved from Louvain to Mechlin. John, his son Thomas and William Rastell matriculated at Louvain University in 1563. William Rastell died in Louvain in 1565, and was buried in the same chapel as his wife.

Margaret Clement died on the 6th July 1570, on the thirty fifth anniversary of the execution of her adoptive father Thomas More, in Mechlin. Her husband John died two years later and the couple were buried behind the altar in St Rumbold's Church.

The circumstances of Margaret Giggs' death, as recorded by her daughter Margaret;
But the time had now come that God had appointed to reward her for her good works done to the Fathers of the Charterhouse. He visited her with an ague which held her nine or ten days, and having brought her very low and in danger, she received all the sacraments with great devotion, and being desirous to give her blessing to all her children who were all present except her Religious daughters and one more that remained at Bruges with her husband, she caused her to be sent for in all haste. Wednesday being now come, which was the last day before she died, and asking if her daughter were come, and being told no, but that they looked for her every hour, she made answer that she would stay no longer for her, and calling her husband she told him that the time of her departing was now come, and she might stay no longer, for there were standing about her bed the Reverend Fathers, Monks of Charterhouse, whom she had relieved in prison in England and did call upon her to come away with them, and that therefore she could stay no longer, because they did expect her, which seemed strange talk unto him. Doubting that she might speak idly by reason of her sickness, he called unto her ghostly Father, a Reverend Father of the Franciscans living in Mechlin, to examine and talk with her, to whom she constantly made answer that she was in no way beside herself, but declared that she still had the sight of the Charterhouse monks before her, standing about her bedside and inviting her to come away with them, as she had told her husband. At the which they were all astonished.